Saturday, June 9, 2018

Field Survey: Oi River Basin

Hi, this is Abdul Moiz, D1 student from the Kawasaki Research Group. Even though this article is a little bit overdue, today I'll be writing about our field trip to Oi River Basin on 28th and 29th May 2018. I took a Shinkansen (bullet train) from Tokyo Station to Shizuoka Station in the morning, where we were supposed to meet up. In addition to teachers and students from the River and Environmental Engineering Laboratory (REEL), we were also joined by two professors from Yangon Technological University (YTU) and two personnel from Chubu Electric upon arrival at Shizuoka station.

Shinkansen to Shizuoka Station
We rented a couple of cars at Shizuoka Station and started moving up the mountainous route towards the first dam site. There were a lot of turns along the way and this was probably the first time I felt sick in a car. However, soon we arrived at the Ikawa Dam site and I started to feel a little bit better.

Ikawa Dam
Ikawa Dam is the downstream-most dam site in the cascade of hydropower dams owned by Chubu Electric in the Oi River Basin. This was exciting for me since this was the first time I was going to get to see how a system of hydropower dams operated in real-life.

We also got to see the inside of Ikawa Dam where the temperature suddenly dropped by 10 degrees Celsius. Also, coming out from the bottom of the dam were a couple of penstocks which carry water from the dam to the hydropower station for power generation.

Penstock at Ikawa Dam
We also got a chance to take a very memorable group photo at the bottom of Ikawa Dam.

Group photo at Ikawa Dam
Once we started moving further upstream, we saw a very serious issue related to sediment accumulation. Large amounts of sediments entered into the river and raised the depth of the riverbed, causing a risk to the storage capacity of downstream dams. Landslides also caused a sudden influx of sediments at certain locations.

Sediment issues near Hatanagi-I Dam
The red bridge in the picture below was reconstructed and raised, however because of the accumulation of sediments the bridge is now only a few meters above the riverbed. This photograph perfectly demonstrates how serious the issue of sediment accumulation is in the upper reaches of this river basin.

Sediment accumulation has decreased the depth of riverbed
In addition to sediments, because of the landslides, several wood logs also get accumulated at the upstream of Hatanagi-I Dam. Another interesting fact was that all of these dams had little to no staff in them and everything was being operated remotely from a control center.

Wood logs have accumulated upstream of Hatanagi-I Dam
We stayed at a rest house located in between Hatanagi-I and Hatanagi-II Dams. It was a quiet place with very few visitors, however, it was quite popular for its onsen. Shiozawa-san also presented his research about dam operation in Oi River Basin to professors from REEL and personnel from Chubu Electric.

Shiozawa-san is presenting his research to Chubu Electric personnel at Akaishi Onsen Shirakaboso
The next morning, we went downstream of Ikawa Dam and visited Nagashima Dam. This dam is owned by MLIT and is also used for other purposes such as flood control and water supply.

Nagashima Dam
Group photo at Nagashima Dam
Moving further downstream, we visited the Shiogo control center. This is where all of the dam and weir gates were being remotely operated from. All of the dams were being observed by using CCTV cameras and a large screen showed the status of all gates, and if any one of them had some issues, a warning was displayed and a team was dispatched to check the issue. In addition to hydropower, other power generation stations, such as wind power were also being operated from this central station.

Shiogo control center
The staff did mention that because of this centralized and integrated control center, the number of personnel had to be reduced. In future, other power generation sources will also be operated from this center and it is expected that the number of staff may be further reduced. However, such kind of integrated operation could lead to better decision-making for power generation and dam operation.
Although over the past I have read a lot of material and papers related to the operation of a system of hydropower dams, this was probably the first time I got to see that operation in real-life and thus gained a better and more holistic understanding of the whole situation. 

Thursday, May 31, 2018































Saturday, April 7, 2018








「Decision-support for hydropower planning」(修士2年・Abdul MOIZ)

「A Deep Learning Approach to Downscaling Precipitation for Flood Risk Assessment over Data-scarce Region: Case Study of Bago River Basin, Myanmar」(修士2年(交換留学)・Yi-Chia CHANG)


「Development of Inundation Model in Complex River Network」(修士1年・劉暢)

「Development of a near-real time flood inundation analysis system for a deltaic flat river basin in a data-scarce region: Case of the Bago River basin, Myanmar」(博士3年・Seemanta Bhagabati)

「Impact of climate variability and water-related disasters on rural livelihood and poverty; A case study in Sri Lanka」(博士3年・Gouri Silva)

「Basin-scale Future Flood Impact Assessment: Bago River in Myanmar」(特別研究員・Ralph Acierto)

Friday, April 6, 2018

Report for the Exchange Program at UTokyo

Length of My Stay
January 27th – March 11th 2018 (6 weeks)
Komaba International Lodge
Program Outline
                 This is my second experience to be the candidate of Student Exchange Program at UTokyo to study WEB-DHM model and to understand the python script which are already written by the specific programmer.
                   During the tenure of my study, it is not only beneficial for the improvement of my study skill but also effective for my daily life style. This is my first-time trip to go abroad individually for further study and that is why I am full of excitement and experience. To say the truth, I was so depended on my mother for everything even for my sleeping schedule before but after my arrival at Dorm , I had to manage all the things by myself and relied on my own to survive thus, I became independent . I think, I will be well equipped with sufficient experience for next time as this is valuable training for my life. 
              My research is about the Estimation of Hydropower Potential for my study area .In order to do that I have to focus on two major factors  that first one is to study WEB-DHM and the other is writing of python script . For the first one, I try to test with WEB-DHM tool in Arc GIS and also in NK-GIAS (Nippon Koei Geographic Information Analysis System) for my study area.  While I am testing with ArcGIS, there are a lot of error. Sam helped me solving these issues often even he was so busy with his tight study schedule. Moreover, I visited to the NK R&D Center at Tsukuba to discuss the new WEB DHM tools in NK GIAS with Mr. Nakamura and Ms. Cho Thanda Nyunt. They gave me not only advise for NKGIAS but also explained hydrological theory to me that I didn’t understand. After meeting, we had a very delicious dinner near the station. They are very kind and helpful to me that I really appreciate their support. I have enhanced my knowledge as well as understanding of real research life through several attempts to trial test for every possibility although the result did not come out as I expected.
               The other one is learning python programming that is really very difficult for me as I am so weak in understanding in coding. In this case, I learn by watching videos and reading reference books. Moiz and Ralph helped me in learning the script, searching books and downloading the data for me that I couldn’t access with my Gmail. For the time being, I achieved slight understanding of how to study the python and it took time for me to know the coding with the absent of anyone’s help. 

 With Mr Nakamura and Ma Cho Thandar Nyunt at NK R&D Center
       During my stay at UTokyo, I attended group meeting every week and hosted the presentation for twice at the beginning of my stay and before I go back to Yangon. From these presentations, I got several suggestions and comments from my colleagues and Kawasaki Sensei. In addition, I joined the “2018 Civil Engineering Symposium SMARR Infrastructure Future Challenges”. I gained several knowledges from that symposium. Especially, one presentation made by the MLIT (Ministry of Land Transport and Tourism) regarding making master plan for one specific township as pilot area in Yangon gave me many knowledges about the techniques of how to maintain and monitor the bridge and tunnel in Japan with robot technology, such kind of investigation technology are critical in our country.
         I also visited the construction site at Shin-Yokohama (tentatively named) Subway Station to connect the Sotetsu Line and Tokyo Line with the support of Kajima Construction company. It is 330 meters in length to connect the two-railway line and an 80-meter section of new station will be constructed and intersected with Shin Yokohama Municipal subway. We went down to the construction site of new subway station to 32 m depth from the ground level. It is full of excitement and knowledge about the tunnel construction technic and the application of sensor monitoring technic in order to control the safety for the construction site. 

At 32 m depth from ground level , explaing about the project and intersection under existing Satation

                And I feel really thankful to Chon-san who had helped me over my stay and for your gift . Furthermore, I would like to express my special thank to Haga , Shin and Sam  for arranging a short trip to Hakone although I couldn’t accomplish the trip as we encountered minor accident on our way to Hakone. Anyway , thanks to all  of them for their kind trip arrangement.I got some new friends; Lui – san and Goori-san who helped me a lot in my stay. Shelly and I visited the Kamakura Pagoda and beach near the pagoda at the first week .
                   At Kamarura Pagoda with Shelly
               Before my return to Yangon , Sensei prepared a fareware dinner partey at the India restaurant and Chon-san treated me lunch. Thank again Goori-san and Chon-san for their parting gifts.

           Fareware Dinner and Parting Gift from Goori-san and Chon-san

All in all, I really thank Kawasaki Sensei for giving me a chance to come to Japan that I got many friends throughout my study in Tokyo . This time is so beneficial for me not only in my studying but also in my daily lifestyle and I got a starting way of my research . Moreover, I got a close communication
with people from our company, Nippon Koei . To conclude, I would like to thank again Sensei and everyone who had helped me during my stay at UTokyo.
Kyu Kyu Thin
Ph.D Candidate
Yangon Technological University

Thursday, April 5, 2018




プログラム: 科学研究費・基盤研究(A)
研究代表者: 川崎
対象地:   東南アジアのデルタ地帯
共同研究機関: 大阪大(文化人類学)、埼玉大(経済学)、北海道大(工学)等

『近代アジアにおける水圏と社会経済 ― データベースと空間解析による新しい地域史の探求』
プログラム: 科学研究費・基盤研究(S)
研究代表者: 東京大学・大学院経済学研究科・城山智子 教授
対象地:   中国長江流域、インド南西部、タイ、インドネシア
共同研究機関: 東大経済学部等
役割:  空間解析ユニット班リーダー

プログラム: 文部科学省 地球環境情報プラットフォーム構築推進プログラム
研究代表者: 東京大学・EDITORIA・池内幸司 教授
対象地:   大井川上流域、信濃川支流犀川上流域  
共同研究機関: 土木研究所ICHARM、日本工営、東京電力、中部電力

プログラム:  JICA / JST 地球規模課題対応国際科学技術協力プログラム
研究代表者:  東京大学・生産技術研究所・目黒公郎 教授
対象地:    ミャンマー・バゴー川流域    
共同研究機関: ヤンゴン工科大学、ミャンマー政府、東大海岸研、東北大等
役割:     水害グループ・リーダー

プログラム:  JICA / JST 地球規模課題対応国際科学技術協力プログラム
研究代表者:  名古屋工業大学・工学研究科・渡辺研司 教授
対象地:    タイ・バンコク周辺の工業団地    
共同研究機関: チュラーロンコーン大学、名工大、慶應大等

プログラム: ベルモント・フォーラムCRA(国際共同研究)
研究代表者: 総合地球環境学研究所・谷口真人 教授
共同研究機関: 総合地球環境学研究所等

Thursday, March 29, 2018

Myanmar Maintenance Field Trip Diary 20180325-0330

By Liu Chang
Today is the first day traveling to Myanmar. Ralph-san, Sam-san, Haga-san and me come to Myanmar for the maintenance of weather station along Bago River. The flight take off at 11.25 am and arrive at Yangon at 16.00 pm.

Although the weather is really hot (37 °C), I’m still excited about the coming trip in an unacquainted country. After arriving, we take a taxi to YTU (Yangon Technical University). Here we make our acquaintance with Okazaki-san, Nakamura-san and Tin Aye from JICA. After printing the manual and preparing the equipment, we drive to our hotel.
Interior of SATERAPS office in YTU
Leaving for Aroma Rose Hotel

One more thing to mention is that the food in Myanmar is really delicious. Thanks to Nakamura-san’s recommendation, we enjoy a great dinner.

By Liu Chang
Today is the first day for a real field trip. The plan is to go to Salu Dam for maintenance. Apart from the four of us, Chit Bo Bo Win, San Win Maung from YTU and Aung Myat Lin from IWUMD (Irrigation and Water Utility Management Department) also join to learn about the technique of maintenance.
Our group at the weather station

The weather is sunny and hot just like yesterday. We have to use umbrella to keep out the ultraviolet radiation. The maintenance procedure including downloading the data, updating program and software and changing the antenna.
Instruction of the maintenance by Ralph-san

After two-hours’ hard work, the maintenance is completed. But we still have to check if the data transfer between weather station and UTokyo & YTU server is working properly. Because of the data transferring occurs at the first ten minutes of every hour, we decide to have lunch first.

When we get to the resting place nearby, everyone is sweating heavily. But it worth the effort when you taste the delicacy. The goat soup is spicy and sour, the shrimp is sweet, all the cuisine plays a symphony on your tongue.
Delicacy at Salu Dam

The data transferring seems to be unsuccessful after checking. This made us really frustrated. But we have to double-check the updating and setting all over again. Even after that, the server still can’t get the data. We start to examine every detail setting including junction of cables. And luckily that’s where we find the problem. It turns out that one red cable has poor connect to relay. After reconnect that one everything works out fine~

After that, we went to another weather station which is at the downstream of Salu dam. This one is constructed with an old version of logger, so it’s more stable and doesn’t take too much time. We take this one more like a training course.
Discussion within the group

By the way, the landscape is also very fascinating, it reminds me of my hometown. And I would like to swim in the river if only I get my trunks.

By Liu Chang
Today is still a hard-working day. We went to Shwelaung Dam for maintenance. Everything seems to be fine except there being some insects in the sensor box. So, we have to take it out and clean it again.
Sensor Box with Excrement

But when we set the antenna, it turns out at the top of the steel pipe will the signal stronger. And it takes us a long time to DIY a holder for the antenna. And we have to go back to Salu Dam to enhance the antenna.

We discover some trouble of transferring data again in Salu Dam. When we at last tackled the problem, it was already at night.

Ralph working at night
antenna setted successfully

Thanks to the hard work of Ralph-san. All day hard-work is worth of a great dinner~

By Liu Chang
Today we go to Zaungdu Dam for maintenance. This is the last station and I kind of miss the day standing in the sunshine. The maintenance work turns out to be quite smooth, it takes shorter time than we expected. We had the lunch together, and I hope we can work together soon.
We by accident witness a beautiful blue bird, and it shall bring luck to all of us.
Model of the dam
Practice of Maintenance
Group Photo

Sunday, March 25, 2018



 参考記事: 2015年8月「遅ればせながら、ご挨拶」










米原慎, 川崎昭如, 竹内渉 (2017) 将来の土地利用変化が洪水氾濫域に及ぼす影響の評価:ミャンマー・バゴー川流域におけるケーススタディ. GIS-理論と応用, 25(1), 23-32.
齋藤自快, 川崎昭如(2017)不確実性を考慮した国際河川の提携支援ツールの開発―メコン川における水力発電施設開発を対象に―.水文・水資源学会誌, 30(3), 149-160.

川村元輝,川崎昭如(2018)貧困層を考慮した洪水氾濫域の開発支援策の検討: ミャンマーでのケーススタディ.水文・水資源学会誌, 31(2), 83-93.
川村元輝,川崎昭如(2017)開発途上国の洪水と貧困の関係性に関する研究:ミャンマーでの地区レベルにおけるケーススタディ. 地域安全学会論文集, 31, 187-193.

芳賀泰平,川崎昭如,池内幸司 水資源開発をめぐる反対運動における争点の変遷と社会情勢との関連の分析.水文・水資源学会誌, 審査中
Ando, T., Kawasaki, A., Koike, T. Evaluation methodology for flood damage reduction by preliminary water release from hydroelectric dams. International Journal of Water Resources Development, in preparation.

Bhagabati, S.S., Kawasaki, A. (2017) Consideration of the rainfall-runoff-inundation (RRI) model for flood mapping in a deltaic area of Myanmar. Hydrological Research Letters,  11(3), 155-160.
・Shirai, N., Bhagabati, S., Kodaka, A., Kohtake, N., Kawasaki, A., Acierto, R.A., Win, W.Z. (2018) Data communication for efficient water resource management among multi stakeholders: A case study in Bago basin, Myanmar. Journal of Disaster Research, 13(1), 70-79.
De Silva, M. M. G. T., and Kawasaki, A., (2017) A statistical approach for understanding the impact of climatic variables on agricultural yield: A case study in Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, under review.
De Silva, M. M. G. T., and Kawasaki, A., (2017) Socioeconomic vulnerability to disaster risk: A case study of flood and drought impact in a rural Sri Lankan community. Ecological Economics, under review.

Moiz, A., Kawasaki, A., Koike, T., Shrestha, M. (2018) A systematic decision-support tool for robust hydropower site selection in poorly gauged basins. Applied Energy, under review.

参考記事 2017年1月「卒論の成果!」